How to make soap?

Homemade soap can be a great product for washing the body, face and even hair – as long as it has a good composition. To make sure that the soap contains only safe ingredients, it’s best to prepare it yourself. Check how to make soap. We have several recipes for homemade soap.

How to make homemade soap?

Soap can be a universal, nourishing cosmetic. As long as you prepare it yourself. Making your own soaps will ensure that they contain only safe, high-quality ingredients. Homemade soap can be applied to the face, body and even hair! Homemade soap is great as a home spa.

Olive-coconut soap

(2% superfatted)

Olive pomace oil 500g

Coconut oil 300g

Distilled water 304g

Potassium hydroxide 187g

Method of preparing homemade soap:

Place the olive pomace oil and coconut oil in a slow cooker or water bath. Prepare a potassium hydroxide solution. Pour the solution into the fat in a slow cooker and mix with a blender. Keep the temperature between 40-60 degrees for at least 3h.

Making soap – using the cold method

Manufacture of soap using the cold method


  1. a pot in which we dissolve the oil phase,
  2. glass vessel for caustic soda (sodium hydroxide NaOH) and distilled water,
  3. blender,
  4. kitchen scales or measuring jug,
  5. two kitchen thermometers or a pyrometer (measures the temperature with a laser beam – non-contact).
  6. gloves, apron and safety glasses,
  7. a mould for soap – it can be an empty juice carton or plastic yoghurt cup.

The most commonly used proportion to make soap by the cold method is the one in which: water constitutes about 20% of all ingredients, fats about 70%, and caustic soda – about 10% of the soap mass.

To make 1000g of soap we need:

  • 200g of distilled water
  • 700g of fats, these can be various types of oils: rapeseed, castor, olive, avocado or almond oil.
  • 100g of NaOH Sodium Hydroxide

We will start the preparation of the soap by making a water phase i.e. combination of water and NaOH Sodium Hydroxide

Pour 200g of distilled water into one dish, and add 100g of sodium hydroxide to the other. This substance is highly corrosive, which is why we protect the body with gloves, an apron and glasses. Also avoid inhaling the vapours that will be released when the caustic soda dissolves in the water. Remember, always pour sodium hydroxide into water, not the other way around! Lastly, leave it to cool.

Oil phase: put all oils and butters, e.g. shea, cocoa, coconut, etc. in a pot, melt fats and heat to 45 degrees Celsius on low heat. We measure the water and oil phase with two kitchen thermometers or a pyrometer. Both should have similar temperatures, around 45 degrees Celsius.

Then we make the water phase and with a thin stream, we pour it into the oil phase. The combined phases are mixed first with a spoon and then with a blender. The mixing operation should be performed several times for approx. 2 minutes each time. After about 5-10 minutes, the liquid substance formed from the combination of water and oil should start to thicken. Solidification indicates that the saponification process has begun. When the mixture has a milk pudding-like consistency, it is the perfect moment to add the remaining ingredients: fragrance oils, dried flowers, peeling poppy seeds, clays or cosmetic dyes.

The resulting mass is poured into the mould. The filled mould should be covered with a cloth or towel and left for one day. After 24 hours we check whether the soap is hard. If not, leave it for another 24h but this time without a cover. After cutting the mould made of an empty juice carton or yoghurt cup, we pull out the soap. If the soap should be cut into smaller cubes, a ceramic knife or an ordinary knife immersed in warm water will facilitate the task. We leave the soap bars for 3 to 5 weeks. The longer the aging process, the harder and milder the soap will be.


Borax, or the sodium salt of boric acid, is widely used. In alternative medicine and in the production of glass, but above all it is famous for its cleaning properties. It is used by supporters of ecological cleaning. Borax works as an insecticide and a universal cleaning agent. It can also become a component of oven cleaning paste, dishwashing powder and drain cleaner. Borax also removes unpleasant odours.

What is borax?

From a chemical point of view, borax is an inorganic chemical compound. It is the sodium salt of weak boric acid, for which the technical term is sodium tetraborate. It is used to create colourless crystals that dissolve in water. It is also fragile and has a sweet-tart taste. Some use it as a dietary supplement – after ingestion, it reacts with hydrochloric acid present in the stomach, resulting in sodium chloride and boric acid. Anyone who has not heard of borax yet and doesn’t know what it is used for should read about its care properties. Borax is a component of cosmetics. It has been shown that the benefits of taking borax can be felt, among others by people with hypothyroidism. In addition, boron contained in it improves magnesium retention in the human body, increases density and strength of bones, and allows reversal of rheumatic changes.

Borax is also a medicine for ringworm. It is also used in the production of glass and fertilizers. In many households, borax is used to clean utility surfaces or various appliances, to wash, and even to refresh the air. It is an interesting replacement for household chemistry, which has a negative impact on human health. Furthermore, borax is biodegradable.

What should you know before using borax for the first time?

Borax, just like baking soda, can become a component of many homemade cleaning products. Its affordable price and wide availability allow this. You can buy it online and it’s on the shelves of some chemists and household chemicals shops. Appropriate precautions should be taken when using borax products. Rubber gloves will be useful, because they protect against possible allergic skin reactions. In addition, the white powder should be stored in a dry, cool place, out of the reach of children.

Borax as an insect repellent

Thanks to many chemicals on the market, fighting insects is definitely easier than in the past. People who want to deal with cockroaches in a more ecological way are recommended to use borax. To prepare a black beetle repellent you need a heaped spoon of borax and a teaspoon of castor sugar. After mixing both components, the resulting poison should be scattered in places visited by pests. In turn, to beat ants and silverfish, you need to boil about 125 ml of water with one glass of sugar. Add a tablespoon of borax to the cooled mixture and stir it thoroughly. The poison prepared in this way should be placed where unwanted guests are most often. Sodium tetraborate is also good for fleas.

Borax as a universal cleaner

Borax cleans and disinfects all areas in homes and apartments that are easily soiled. 10 g of borax and 1 liter of water are needed to prepare a multi-functional cleaning fluid. Stiring the two ingredients creates a mixture that needs to be sprayed on dirty surfaces. After cleaning these places, you need to wipe them with a clean cloth. A more complex recipe for an ecological cleaning fluid can include far more ingredients. One of such agents to maintain order is a preparation based on 2 teaspoons of borax, 2 teaspoons of spirit vinegar and 2 glasses of warm water.

In turn, to prepare the cleaning paste for the oven, sink, bath tub or sink you need 4 tablespoons of borax, 8 tablespoons of baking soda, ½ cup of salt and a little water. The resulting mass is applied to dirt, left for a few minutes, and then rubbed with a damp cloth.

One of the most effective methods of cleaning a toilet bowl is to use a brush soaked in a solution made of ½ cup of borax and 2 litres of water. Borax is also used for cleaning windows. The liquid made of 1 litre of warm water and 3 tablespoons of white powder works better than chemist’s agents.

Borax for cleaning dishwashers

Borax is a component of dishwasher powder, the preparation of which consists in mixing a glass of borax with ½ cup of calcined salt and ½ cup of sodium percarbonate. The resulting powder softens the water, and oxygen released from sodium percarbonate perfectly cleans dirty dishes.

Borax as a gold and silver cleaner

Just like citric acid, borax is recommended for cleaning jewelry, cutlery and gold or silver items. Borax after mixing with lemon juice (1:1) should be applied to dirty surfaces. Next, the impurities can be removed by rubbing the cutlery with a cotton cloth, and finally preparation must be rinsed with warm water. In turn, with a paste prepared from a tablespoon of white powder and 250 ml of lemon juice, you can clean pots, pans and other kitchen utensils.

Borax for clearing clogged drains

The recipe for homemade drain cleaner contains only two ingredients. First, pour into a clogged pipe ½ cup of borax, then pour it with 2 cups of boiling water. After an hour, pour more water into the drain, but not boiling water. Such a home remedy for clogged drain works better than the most popular preparations.

Removal of unpleasant odours with borax

Cleaning the house without removing unpleasant odours from it makes no sense. The unpleasant odour accumulating in the apartments of cat and dog lovers can be removed. It is enough to buy borax and sprinkle it on the bottom of the cuvette.

Essential oils – to use them, or not?

Persistence of essential oils.

The use of essential oils in soaps is optional. It’s up to you whether you add oil or not to your soap. There are soap makers who don’t like essential or scented oils and they make unscented soaps. And that’s fine, such soap isn’t worse, it still fulfils its function – washes the skin and removes impurities without causing excessive dryness. It just doesn’t smell. I mean, it smells, but this fragrance is very delicate and hardly perceptible, and often the smell of oils that were used to make it is more noticeable. Such non-scented soap is ideal for pregnant women, small children and allergy sufferers because all these groups should use essential oils carefully or not use them at all. 

Nevertheless, the fraction of soap makers adding essential oils to the soap is buoyant because, let’s face it, the smell of the cosmetic is very important for many people. Often it is the smell that convinces us to buy a particular cream or shampoo. In other words, it’s just nice to wash oneself with fragrant soap.


Essential oils seem to be a fairly obvious choice when it comes to scent hand-made soaps. Why? 

  • First of all, there is not much alternative for them – yes, there are fragrance oils, or synthetic fragrances, but a large proportion of soap makers try to control the ingredients that they add to their soaps and avoid artificial substances. Essential oils are obtained from the plant material by means of steam distillation or extraction, so they meet the requirement of “naturalness” as much as possible.
  • Secondly, they are rather easily available, most of them can be found in pharmacies, herbal stores, florists. 
  • Thirdly, unlike fragrance oils, only some of the essential oils accelerate the solidification of the soap.
  • Fourthly, the smell of most oils, although quite one-dimensional, is simply nice. There are no artificial notes here – the smell of citrus oils resembles real citruses, and not the smell of dish detergent. With the right combination of oils, you can get really beautiful fragrance notes.
  • And fifthly, essential oils are substances that according to research, have a positive effect on the health and condition of human skin and hair.

and disadvantages of essential oils

However, it is worth being aware that the use of oils in soaps also has its drawbacks. Essential oils are not cheap, and usually we need about 10-15 grams per half kilo of oils to make them smell. That’s quite a lot, considering the cost of 7-10 ml bottle, which oscillates around 7-15 zlotys (there are much more expensive oils). This, of course, increases the cost of making soap.

The smell of oils disappear from the soap after some time. Some fragrances escape from the soap very quickly (citrus oils), others more slowly (geranium, patchouli). Most fragrances are difficult to notice one year after making the soap, and some fragrances disappear much earlier, for example after two or three months. You can extend the life of the oil by “anchoring” it with, for example, clays, but let’s face it, it doesn’t give spectacular effects.

Essential oils may have an allergic effect, most are not recommended for pregnant women, and some oils (especially spice oils, such as cinnamon or anise) can irritate the skin, especially the sensitive one. How we react to essential oil is an individual matter. Therefore, beware: before you add any oil to the soap, test it on yourself. Of course, we don’t use oils directly on the skin. Just add it to your favorite oil (jojoba, argan) and watch the reaction. If after such a test nothing will happen, then after adding it to the soap also probably nothing will happen to you because skin contact with soap is short.

How to use oils in soap? 

I try to have a common sense approach to oils in soaps. I don’t see the point of adding very expensive oils to soaps, such as Roman chamomile oil or rose oil (not to be confused with rosewood oil). Soap is a cosmetic that we rinse off, the time of its contact with the skin is quite limited, and thus the duration of the impact of all potential benefits of essential oils is limited. I have not come across any research into the effectiveness of oils in soaps.

I’m not saying that oils in soaps give nothing to the skin, but I also don’t want to spread some false beliefs that they do wonders. Many oils have bactericidal and antifungal properties, they can be helpful, for example, in the fight against acne and this is scientifically proven, but this doesn’t mean that soap with such oil will remove a cause of disease.

(In this context, it is worth remembering that cosmetics do not cure, they can only support the fight against disease processes or do not disturb it. In case of serious illnesses, you have to see a doctor).

For those of you who love oils and can’t imagine soap without them, I have prepared a table today, such a small pill of basic knowledge of essential oils just for the needs of a beginner soap maker. You will find here very short characteristics of popular, inexpensive and relatively easily available essential oils. The second column describes the effects of individual oils on the skin and mucous membranes, i.e. those parts of our body that the soap comes into contact with. The third column contains examples of oils that create interesting fragrance notes with a selected oil and can be successfully combined together. The last column lists possible side effects that should be considered before using the oil.

As an aside, of course, I’m aware that fragrance is a very subjective matter. What is a beautiful fragrance for one person may be unbearable for another. Lots of people hate the smell of patchouli, which is a bit associated with the smell of old hippie. There is probably a large group of people who hate citrus oils or pine oil because they evoke associations with air fresheners. For example, I tolerate anise a little (I associate it with disliked childhood sweets), and I love cinnamon or ylang-ylang. Nothing can be done about it. Everyone has their own taste. That’s why the connections I give are just a starting point. It’s best to experiment and check what fragrance appeals to you and which doesn’t. Sometimes you can be quite surprised, because the oil we dislike, in combination with others gives an original, intriguing fragrance.

Persistence of essential oils

What essential oils are best for soap? As I mentioned before, essential oils differ quite a lot, both in properties and smell. If we want to use them in soap, it is worth being aware of these differences, because thanks to it, we can create the best tailored soap for our needs. It is also worth knowing a thing or two about the smell, or rather its persistence in a cold-made soap. Essential oils, despite many unquestioned advantages, have one serious disadvantage – they disappear from the soap quite quickly. “Quite quickly” is of course a relative concept, but in the case of oils it means several weeks to several months. Some oils “escape” from the soap after a few weeks – these are primarily citrus oils, while some are long-lasting (in one of my soaps, patchouli oil was still noticeable a year and a half after adding it!). Due to the length and intensity of persistence of smell, we can divide the fragrance notes of oils into upper, middle and lower ones.

Upper notes – they disappear the fastest 

Middle notes – last a little longer than the upper notes and are the content of the fragrance 

Lower notes – last the longest, are strong, clear and cement the smell

Theoretically, for soap to smell long and interesting, it is recommended to mix oils from these three categories, but as with rules, it is worth breaking them and creating fragrances yourself. If you don’t know what to combine and which oils escape quickly and which will stay in the soap for a long time, I recommend the following division: 

Essential oils – fragrance notes

Upper note (fleeting) Middle note Lower note (long-lasting)
Basil Star anise Cedar
Bergamot Cinnamon (leaf) Rose tree
Lemon Black pepper Clove
Eucalyptus Tea tree Frankincense
Grapefruit Geranium Myrrh
Lime Ginger Patchouli
Cajeput Juniper Sandalwood
Tangerin Coriander Vetiver
Spearmint Lavender Ylang-ylang
Orange Neroli  
Pine May chang (litsea cubeba)  
  Lemon grass  


The above division is quite arbitrary in places – for example, eucalyptus is for me between the upper and middle notes, and lavender between the middle and lower notes. Essential oils can also be different, different manufacturers – different oils. For example, I have experienced longer and shorter persistence of mint fragrances. Because soapmaking is largely chemistry, but even more so art, I think it’s worth playing the artist and approaching the composition of the fragrance creatively. Experiment, combine fragrances, and write what works for you and what doesn’t. Of course, within the safety limits – the recommended amount of essential oils in soap is from 3 to 5 percent. If you want the oil to smell in the soap longer, you can try mixing it with a small amount of white kaolin clay (or other if you make coloured soap), iris root powder or just combining fleeting and long-lasting oils.